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People’s Livelihood in Han Dynasty —— Cultural Relics of Han Dynasty Exhibition
      Abstract:

      Agricultural economy was the economic foundation of the feudal society, and Xuzhou laid a good foundation for the prosperity of all industries because of its comprehensive advantages of geographical location and diligent people.

     During Han dynasty, Xuzhou had stable agriculture, prosperous commerce and many kinds of handicraft industries. The traditional pottery and textile industries further developed, and the industries of quarrying, jade making, iron smelting and copper casting were particularly developed. Xuzhou became a prosperous commercial city. According to historical records, during the reign of West Han emperor Pingdi, the Chu kingdom had 110,000 households and 500,000 people. In the reign of East Han emperor Shundi, Pengcheng had 90,000 households and 490,000 people, making it one of the most dense areas at that time.

      Part1 Pottery

      Depending on the firing process and firing temperature, Han dynasty pottery unearthed in Xuzhou includes primitive porcelain, glazed pottery, lacquer pottery and common clay pottery or red pottery.

      The original porcelain had delicate texture, little impurities, glazed surface and high firing temperature. It was prosperous and widely appeared in the early Western Han dynasty and gradually declined in the late Western Han dynasty. Glazed earthenware has many impurities and the body is mostly red. The glaze is often applied on the surface and fired in a low        temperature, which is easy to peel off. The glaze earthenware in Xuzhou appeared in the late West Han dynasty and gradually became popular in the East Han dynasty. The number of common gray pottery is the largest, and part of them are painted with colourful patterns. Lacquer pottery was found less, which are ceramic body lacquer with rich pattern.

      
Par2 Agricultural

      During Han dynasty, the grain production, mulberry and hemp planting and vegetable and fruit cultivation in Xuzhou reached a high level. According to the record, there was a good reputation of "the people are good farmers and the wild people are healthy". On this basis, horses, cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens, dogs and other livestock industry, as well as many industries engaged in the processing of agricultural and sideline products such as textile, wine and weaving industries, have also been greatly developed.

      Among the unearthed cultural relics, various forms of warehouses, stoves, wells, mills, pigsty, colorful pavilion buildings, charming and simple ceramic animals and other cultural relics with a strong sense of life appeared in large numbers, which fully showed the prosperity of Xuzhou in Han dynasty.

      
Part3 Foods

      Since the time of Pengzu, Xuzhou has had a long cooking tradition, and in Han dynasty food culture gradually formed a certain system and characteristics. A large number of archaeological statistics show that during Han dynasty, the ancestors of Xuzhou took rice, wheat, millet, sorghum and other grain as their staple. Meat food such as pigs, cattle, sheep, chickens, ducks and aquatic products such as fish and crabs were widely popular. Various fruits like date, plum, and peach are also common. Cooking utensils and food utensils such as caldron, steamer, stove, tripod, pot, basin, dyeing stove and ear cup are found.In Xuzhou Han dynasty stone painting, the lively banquet picture and cooking picture fully reflect the rich and colorful food culture at that time.

      
Part4 Commerce

      In Han dynasty, Pengcheng was the political and economic center of Chu kingdom (Pengcheng kingdom). The developed land and water transportation promoted the great prosperity of commerce. During the West Han dynasty, a large amount of grain from Shandong and Jianghuai regions was transported to the capital Chang 'an through Pengcheng every year, and commodities from all over the country also gathered in Pengcheng. Currency is the intermediary of commodity circulation. There are many coins unearthed in Xuzhou. In terms of quantity, more than 176,000 coins were unearthed in the tomb of the king of Chu in Shizishan, and 207 kilograms in Beidongshan, and 1.5 tons in Datong street.

      
Part5 Iron Melting

      During the reign of West Han emperor Wudi, the policy that the iron and salt were sold by the government was implemented.Iron smelting industry developed in Xuzhou, which was administered by officers. Two large-scale mining relics have been found in the Liguo Han dynasty iron smelting site.