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Quarry sites of Han Dynasty

      Abstract:

      The West Han dynasty quarry was listed as a national key cultural relic protection unit in May 2006. The basic unit of the quarry site is the open pit. In the process of stone extraction, artisans extract the material according to the natural conditions such as rock trend, rock fissure and rock texture. The main quarrying technology of the quarry site is similar to that of the tombs of West Han dynasty and medium-sized tombs in Xuzhou. The excavation tools also have an obvious Han dynasty style, especially the excavation of a large number of pieces of pottery and "five baht" coins, which proves that the quarrying site can date from West Han dynasty and may extend to the early East Han dynasty. In West Han dynasty, the tombs of the king of Chu were numerous in Xuzhou, all of which were sealed with large block stones, while the medium-sized tombs were mostly sealed with strip stones. However, no quarry sites have been found before. In the process of stone extraction, artisans took advantages of the natural conditions such as rock trend, rock fissure and rock texture. The explored stone is 1.2-3m long and 0.7-1.4m wide. According to the analysis of excavation and cleaning, there are several kinds of stone quarrying techniques in Han dynasty: first, according to the size and trend of the mountain stone with a little dressing,people chisel holes around and plug them with chisels, wedges and other things to remove stones. The second is to walk along the rock trend and choose a better stone to excavate a trench around the rectangular stone. After reaching a predetermined depth, people will chisel holes from both sides and fill them with chisel, wedge and others to remove stones. There remains some gravel with iron pieces in the quarry pit, and most of them rusted into a small round ball. In some stone pits also found quarry tools, such as wide chisel, flat chisel and so on. 

      The West Han dynasty quarry was listed as a national key cultural relic protection unit in May 2006. The basic unit of the quarry site is the open pit. In the process of stone extraction, artisans extract the material according to the natural conditions such as rock trend, rock fissure and rock texture. The main quarrying technology of the quarry site is similar to that of the tombs of West Han dynasty and medium-sized tombs in Xuzhou. The excavation tools also have an obvious Han dynasty style, especially the excavation of a large number of pieces of pottery and "five baht" coins, which proves that the quarrying site can date from West Han dynasty and may extend to the early East Han dynasty. In West Han dynasty, the tombs of the king of Chu were numerous in Xuzhou, all of which were sealed with large block stones, while the medium-sized tombs were mostly sealed with strip stones. However, no quarry sites have been found before. In the process of stone extraction, artisans took advantages of the natural conditions such as rock trend, rock fissure and rock texture. The explored stone is 1.2-3m long and 0.7-1.4m wide. According to the analysis of excavation and cleaning, there are several kinds of stone quarrying techniques in Han dynasty: first, according to the size and trend of the mountain stone with a little dressing,people chisel holes around and plug them with chisels, wedges and other things to remove stones. The second is to walk along the rock trend and choose a better stone to excavate a trench around the rectangular stone. After reaching a predetermined depth, people will chisel holes from both sides and fill them with chisel, wedge and others to remove stones. There remains some gravel with iron pieces in the quarry pit, and most of them rusted into a small round ball. In some stone pits also found quarry tools, such as wide chisel, flat chisel and so on.